The first version of AutoCAD (1982) was originally conceived for the Apple II series of computers, but it has since been ported to the many different platforms that are compatible with it. For over thirty years, it has been used for designing everything from large buildings to tiny automobiles and even spaceships. Although version 10 of AutoCAD was the first to be released for personal computers, its beginnings can be traced to 1974 when the original MIT CAD group was formed. The members of this group, which would eventually become Corel (now a part of Corel), were attempting to develop software to assist in the drafting of structural and mechanical drawings of buildings. The software they had developed was written in BASIC, but in order to convert the drawings into a form that could be displayed on a computer screen, they needed a dedicated computer for this task. Although their first computer was a minicomputer, they eventually purchased a portable, front-loading reel-to-reel tape drive for this purpose. After using this computer, the group’s computer programmer realized that the tape drive, with its manual tape winding system, could be turned into an automated drafting tool, by digitizing the tape, and displaying the resulting drawing on a computer screen. The tape drive, having only one reel, was upgraded to a double-reel (or two-reel) tape drive, and the software was improved to recognize multiple cuts of tape. The MIT group split into two groups: one to develop and another to market the software. This group, called MITS (the MITS Group), was eventually spun off from Corel, and continues to market and develop AutoCAD. Autodesk purchased the rights to AutoCAD from the MITS Group in 1988, and Autodesk started marketing and supporting AutoCAD on personal computers in 1989. As a result, AutoCAD now runs on a variety of personal computers, including the Apple Macintosh, Microsoft Windows, and many Linux distributions. Despite its commercial roots, AutoCAD is now widely used in the world of computer-aided design and architecture. AutoCAD is used for all types of building design, including mechanical, electrical, structural, and architectural design. In fact, it’s the most common CAD program for industrial designers and architects. AutoCAD also performs as a 3D modelling program for mechanical and architectural designs. AutoCAD can also be used to create drawings for technical documentation and training material. If you
2D only AutoCAD 2004 added 2D only mode to the drawing window, which is a more intuitive mode for 2D drafting. In this mode, an orthogonal view of the drawing is presented, with elements in the drawing displayed as shaded or haloed, and text is drawn in perspective with no grid or guides. AutoCAD 2005 added the ability to place text automatically in 2D only mode. 3D only AutoCAD 2006 added 3D only mode to the drawing window, which is a more intuitive mode for 3D modeling. In this mode, a perspective view of the drawing is displayed, and the objects in the drawing are shaded by “unwrapping” them from the default perspective to the 3D viewpoint. AutoCAD does not distinguish between block and line elements in 3D modeling mode. 3D wireframe AutoCAD 2007 introduced 3D wireframe mode, a new type of display for 3D models. In this mode, 3D objects are displayed in wireframe, similar to those of a paper blueprint. The display is constructed from two orthogonal views, with each view called a clipping region, or viewshed, and with the two clipping regions separated by a “difference plane”. 3D shaded AutoCAD 2008 introduced 3D shaded mode, a new type of display for 3D models. In this mode, 3D objects are displayed in wireframe, similar to those of a paper blueprint, but with shaded display, similar to those of an architectural drawing. 3D shading AutoCAD 2009 added 3D shading mode. In this mode, shaded 3D models can be displayed by linetype, or by using an internal lighting system. 3D shading by linetype uses a custom palette of linetype and texture combinations which users select. 3D surfaces AutoCAD 2010 introduced 3D surface mode, a new type of display for 3D models. In this mode, 3D objects are displayed in wireframe, similar to those of a paper blueprint, but with 3D-created surfaces, similar to those of a paper blueprint. 3D shading by internal lighting system AutoCAD 2013 introduced 3D shading by internal lighting system, a new type of 3D shaded display in 3D modeling mode. This display uses a custom palette of shaded colors and luminance gradients, which users select. 3D 97e7c7d4d1
Send this page to someone via email New York City-based restaurant Dish is ditching its bike boxes in favour of a model that allows people to leave their cycle. According to Eater, the company recently revealed plans to ditch the “bicycle parking” model in favour of a system called BikeShare NYC, which would allow people to leave their bikes at various spots around the city. The company’s decision comes after its predecessor, CitiBike, had raised a few eyebrows in 2015 for using blue and white plastic racks with hard plastic, rather than the traditional bike boxes found in most cities. The current iteration of the system is similar to that of the Dutch city of Amsterdam’s own bike sharing system. Story continues below advertisement The initiative is expected to be rolled out in the coming weeks. The “BikeShare NYC” model of bike sharing. pic.twitter.com/g3IldHPdrH — Dish (@dishnyc) July 1, 2016 The company has not said when it will roll out its new system. As many as 60 bike share companies are operating in New York City alone, with CitiBike operating nearly 4,000 bikes in the five boroughs.Combined Her2/neu receptor status in breast cancer: molecular analysis and diagnostic and therapeutic consequences. Breast carcinomas are heterogeneous tumors comprising of four major groups on the basis of their expression of hormone receptors (ER and PR), HER2/neu receptor, and Ki-67 proliferation index. Several studies have addressed the possible relations between the expression of HER2/neu and the other two classes of markers in breast cancer. However, the nature of this relation is yet to be determined. We have analyzed the expression of the four markers in a total of 250 cases of breast carcinoma. The HER2/neu receptor was immunostained using the HercepTest kit. The Ki-67 index was assessed by the MIB-1 monoclonal antibody. The immunoreactivity for ER and PR was determined using the IHC method. The expression of HER2/neu was observed in 27.6% of the cases, while the expression of ER and PR was 53% and 58%, respectively. The expression of HER2/neu was significantly correlated to the Ki-67 index and the tumor size. The expression of ER and PR was also found to
Exports: Save your work efficiently. Save your work quickly and easily with the new AutoCAD Exports format. (video: 1:45 min.) Documents: Sync your files and folders between your computers. On multiple devices or computers, you can synchronize your drawings with just one click. Imports: Improve the quality of your imports. Hint cards now show when a constraint will be violated during an import. When a hint card is opened in AutoCAD, the option to break or ignore the constraint is always available. (video: 1:30 min.) Civil Engineering: Are you designing for civil engineering? The new Civil Engineering tool adds the ability to define “totals,” which represent the total area of a group of walls or floors. In addition, it supports systems of construction by including the ability to define and incorporate members in a group. 3D Modeling: Build a 3D model and add extra detail to add depth and realism. When you model objects in 3D, the first time you interact with a 3D object is when you place it in your drawing. With the new Direct Extrude command, you can convert any 2D object into a 3D surface. You can also now rotate, stretch, and distort the objects and surfaces you create. The Change Shape tool can modify and modify any shape, including the ability to change the color of an object. 3D Printing: The latest release of AutoCAD is now fully capable of printing in 3D. Support for 3D printing technology continues to advance and improve as the industry and application developers continue to evolve. You can now print models of nearly any type and shape that you make in AutoCAD. You can even print from a.STL file, including your own custom geometry. The new command, called Add to Layer, lets you add STL files to your drawing as layers, allowing you to work on the model at any time. You can also save the STL file, which can then be opened as an STL file in other applications. Architecture: Add height and mass to your design with architectural constraints. In AutoCAD, you can add points, constraints, and constraints-based areas and dimensions to your drawings. You can add masses, weight, and area constraints to the design of your building to improve the accuracy
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